On October 24, 1889, the Omaha Daily World reported that G.S. Kennedy, an African American mechanic who frequented the bar at the Paxton Hotel, was “somewhat indignant” for being charged a higher price than usual because, as the bartender said, he was Black. My review of other articles from early Omaha shows wasn’t Kennedy’s experience wasn’t exception in Omaha; it was the rule.
Race and racism has dominated Omaha has history of movement, organizing and activism for civil rights for African Americans and others that goes almost back to the founding of the city. Following is my summary of it.
|This business card for a Florence real estate agent is plainly racist.
1804 to 1900
- 1804: York, a slave of William Clark on the Lewis and Clark expedition, became the first recorded Black person in the area that became Omaha.
- 1854: The Nebraska Territory was created by the United States Congress with condition that it stay free of slavery. That rule was broken regularly.
- 1859: Five years after the city’s founding, a proposal was raised to the Omaha City Council to abolish slavery within city limits. It fails.
- 1860: Eliza, a slave who ran away from an Omaha businessman, was tracked to Chicago and was arrested there under the Fugitive Slave Act.
|The Omaha Star is Nebraska’s only African American newspaper, and was founded in 1938.
- 1865: The proposed Nebraska State Constitution had a clause limiting voting rights in the state to “free white males” that kept the territory from becoming a state for almost a year.
- 1867: St. John African Methodist Episcopal Church was formed, and was the first African American congregation founded in Omaha.
- 1879: Chief Standing Bear, a leader among the Ponca tribe, was arrested and imprisoned at Fort Omaha by the US Army. In Standing Bear vs. Crook, he stood accused of leaving Oklahoma without federal permission. Winning the trial, for the first time Native Americans were recognized as human beings by a U.S. court.
- 1884: Matthew Ricketts became the first African American to graduate from an institution of higher education, Ricketts earns a degree from the University of Nebraska College of Education.
- 1889: On October 24, the Omaha Daily World reported that G.S. Kennedy, an African American mechanic who frequented the bar at the Paxton Hotel, was “somewhat indignant” for being charged a higher price than usual because, as the bartender said, he was Black.
- 1891: Joe Coe was lynched by a white mob of 10,000 people for allegedly raping a white woman.
- 1892: Dr. Matthew Ricketts became the first African American to be elected to the Nebraska Legislature.
- 1894: The first African-American fair held in the United States took place in Omaha in July.
- 1899: J. A. Smith died suspiciously after being arrested by Omaha police. He was arrested for “loud talking”.
|Malcolm X was born in Omaha in 1925.
1900 to 1930
- 1905: More than 800 students, the children of European immigrant laborers in South Omaha, protested the presence of Japanese students, the children of strikebreakers. They actually locked teachers and other adults out of the school buildings.
- 1909: A white mob attempts to murder a Greek man after the death of a South Omaha policeman. When they are denied, they turn to Greektown and demolish several blocks of homes and businesses. A young boy was killed, and 3,000 people of Greek descent flee the city.
- 1910: A “Colored Old Folks Home” was opened in North Omaha at 933 N. 25th Street by the Negro Women’s Christian Association.
- 1914: The Omaha chapter of the NAACP was opened.
|The Hamitic League of the World was founded in Omaha in 1917.
- 1917: The Hamitic League of the World was established by George Wells Parker in Omaha. It was committed to Black pride.
- 1918: Cyril Briggs became editor of the African Blood Brotherhood journal, The Crusader, which was printed and distributed in Omaha.
- 1919: Around September 1st, police raid at a downtown hotel and shoot a black bellboy named Eugene Scott. The Omaha Bee called the shooting as reckless and indiscriminate, noting it as the “crowning achievement” of a “disgraceful and incompetent” Omaha police department.
- 1919: Will Brown was lynched by a white mob of 20,000 people in downtown Omaha, alleged to have raped a white woman. Rioters turn to the Near North Side neighborhood, only stopped by US Army from Fort Omaha.
- 1919: Harry Haywood became radicalized by white mob rule over South Omaha. He eventually became a leader of the Communist Party of America.
- 1920: Redlining was imposed on African Americans using insurers, banks, real estate agents and landlords to create a black ghetto in the Near North Side neighborhood. It stays intact through the 1950s.
|Youth swim at Peony Park after the pool was integrated in 1955.
- 1920: The Omaha Colored Commercial Club was founded to promote black business, provide job placement for African Americans, and better relations between white and black businessmen in Omaha.
- 1920s:Reverend Russel Taylor preaches in pulpits across the city against racism and for justice, before there was a civil rights movement.
- 1921: Earl Little forms the Omaha chapter of W. E. B. DuBois’s Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA).
- 1921: The first Omaha Klu Klux Klan group was formed.
- 1925: Malcolm Little, son of Earl Little, was born at the University of Nebraska College of Medicine Hospital in Omaha. Malcolm Little eventually took the name Malcolm X.
- 1926: The Ku Klux Klan firebombs and vandalized Earl Little’s home, and he moved them away from Omaha.
- 1928: The Omaha chapter of the Urban League was formed.
- 1929: Whitney Young became the leader of the Urban League in Omaha.
|The DePorres Club was fighting against racism and segregation in Omaha before the national Civil Rights movement.
1930 to 1960
- 1938: Mildred Brown and her husband S. Edward Gilbert establish the Omaha Star, which eventually became Nebraska’s only African American newspaper.
- 1946: Harry A. Burke becomes superintendent of Omaha Public Schools. He reportedly says as long as he was superintendent, there would not be a black educator in the school system, other than the two schools that served the black community, because he opposed having black teachers “where white children would see a black person in a role of prominence or authority.”
- 1947: Father John Markoe worked with students and community members to form the DePorres Club at Creighton University.
- 1948: The DePorres Club staged Omaha’s first sit-in at a restaurant in the Douglas County Courthouse with 30 members joining. The restaurant eventually committed to desegregation.
- 1948: The DePorres Club was expelled from Creighton University, and started meeting in the Omaha Star offices.
- 1952: The DePorres Club began the Omaha Bus Boycott, which continued for two years until the Omaha and Council Bluffs Street Railway Company commits to hiring African American drivers.
- 1953: The DePorres Club wins a boycott of Reeds Ice Cream. The store refuses to hire African Americans until five months after the boycott begins. They hired one African American, and the boycott was ended.
- 1955: Peony Park was picketed by African Americans and whites because of their discrimination. They don’t allow African Americans in. The Nebraska Supreme Court finds them guilty and fined them $50.
- 1958: The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. preached at Salem Baptist Church.
- 1958: African-American educators in Omaha Public Schools start a professional group called Concerned and Caring Educators, which continues today.
|Dr. Matthew Ricketts, the first African American college graduate in Nebraska, and the first African American member of the Nebraska Legislature.
1960 to 1980
- 1962: Bertha Calloway formed the Negro History Society.
- 1963: 4CL was formed to demand civil rights for African Americans in Omaha.
- 1963: In September, the Sorrow March was held in downtown Omaha in memoriam to the children killed by the Birmingham church bombing.
- 1963: The City of Omaha Human Rights Commission was formed in response to the protests of 4CL.
- 1964: Malcolm X, who was born in Omaha, speaks in the city.
- 1966: Two days of rioting ravish the Near North Side neighborhood, ending when National Guard troops arrive.
- 1966: A Time for Burning, a documentary about race issues in Omaha, was released and received an Oscar nomination.
- 1966: Omaha’s Black Panther Party was formed.
- 1968: Riots happen in the Near North Side neighborhood after the assassination of Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. in April.
|Harry Haywood, a leader of the Communist Party of the United States, was radicalized by white racism in Omaha in the 1910s.
- 1968: Robert Kennedy speaks in North Omaha in support of Omaha’s civil rights movement.
- 1963:Black Association for Nationalism Through Unity (BANTU) was founded to rally high school student activists in protest and action.
- 1969: An officer of the Omaha Police Department shoots an unarmed African American 14-year-old girl. Riots break out across North Omaha.
- 1969: Black Liberators for Action on Campus (BLAC) organized a sit-in at the office of the University of Nebraska at Omaha president to lobby for African American history courses at the institution. 54 students are arrested by the Omaha Police Department.
- 1970: Ernie Chambers was elected to the Nebraska Legislature for the first time. He continued to serve for the following 40+ years.
|The Greektown Riots of 1909 decimated the Greek community of Omaha.
- 1970: David Rice and Ed Poindexter, leaders within Omaha’s Black Panthers unit, are arrested for the murder of an office in the Omaha Police Department. The officer was killed when an explosive blew up an abandoned house in North Omaha.
- 1971: Rice and Poindexter were convicted of murder and sentenced to life in prison.
- 1976: Omaha Public Schools was ordered to establish integrated school busing practices by the United States Supreme Court.
- 1976: The Great Plains Black History Museum is founded by Bertha Calloway. 1977: JoAnn Strickland Maxey became the first African American woman elected to the Nebraska Legislature.
- 1978: Construction begins on the North Freeway bisecting North Omaha, cutting the African-American community in half and marring social fabric for decades.
|St. John African Methodist Episcopal Church, founded in 1867.
1980 to Today
- 1981: An African American family signs a lease for a duplex in East Omaha, and within a week the home was burnt down. The case is unsolved.
- 1988: Mad Dads, a group of African American and white fathers, formed to protest gangs in Omaha.
- 1995: Arsonists tip over, burnt and destroyed an African-American woman’s car in East Omaha at the same location as the 1981 arson. The case was unsolved.
|A statue of York, the first Black person in the area that became Omaha, who came through in 1804 as a slave of Meriwether Lewis on the Lewis and Clark expedition.
- 1996: Omaha Public Schools ends court-ordered busing.
- 1997: Marvin Ammons, an African American Persian Gulf war veteran, was shot dead by officers from the Omaha Police Department.
- 1998: The North Freeway / Highway 75 is dedicated from Lake Street to the new Sorenson Parkway and Storz Expressway.
- 2000: George Bibbins is killed by officers of the Omaha Police Department after leading a high speed chase.
- 2000: The Nebraska Legislature sets term limits to prevent Ernie Chambers from continuing to serve as North Omaha’s senator.
- 2002: Omaha’s Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial was dedicated.
- 2007: An Ethiopian businessman buys a grocery store in East Omaha. Within a month, it was vandalized, robbed and burnt to the ground. The case is unsolved.
- 2014: More than 30 Omaha Police Department officers, mostly white, respond to a parking complaint at North 33rd and Seward Streets. They apprehend African American Octavius Johnson and beat him, and also beat several members of his family. After a video of the incident emerges, a lengthy internal investigation occurred and six officers are fired from the department.
|An article heading from the Omaha Star in July 1953 reads, “Picket Reeds Every Night; Youth Arrested.”
|A 4CL campaign in 1964 targeted racism at S.S. Kresge in downtown Omaha.