Adam’s Note: This is Chapter 16 in a series for NorthOmahaHistory.com called Framed: J. Edgar Hoover, COINTELPRO and the Omaha Two Story. It was written by Michael Richardson. Learn more here.
“Might be prejudicial to the police murder trial”
—Paul Young, October 13, 1970
The House Committee on Internal Security was one committee that J. Edgar Hoover kept tight control of through relationships with members of the Committee and the exchange of information with staff by FBI agents. The Committee was the successor to the infamous House Committee on Un-American Activities.[i]
On October 6, an Internal Security subcommittee hearing opened that focused on “National Office Operations of the Black Panthers and activities in Des Moines, Iowa, and Omaha, Nebraska.” Chief investigator Robert Horner was the first witness. Horner prepared a document entitled “Nationwide Survey of Black Panther Party Activities” and testified on his research of the Panthers.
“In 42 cities reported upon 4 police officers had been killed by Panther members. The killers were all arrested. 2 were convicted. 2 are awaiting trial.”[ii]
“We have established that known Black Panthers have been in possession of explosive and/or incendiary devices. These devices have encompassed a considerable range of variety, in some instances limited only by the ingenuity of their possessors.”
Horner said the survey had generated reports of twenty-seven active Black Panther and National Committee to Combat Fascism chapters which he considered virtually the same organization.
“Yes… the name can change from National Committee to Combat Fascism to Black Panther Party and back again, an example being here in Washington, D.C. where the group started out as the National Committee to Combat Fascism and then was upgraded to the status of a Black Panther Party group, which it is now. Whereas in Omaha, where there was a Black Panther Party group, it was downgraded for inactivity to the status of a National Committee to Combat Fascism and has since been ordered out of existence.”[iii]
On the other side of Congress there was a Senate Judiciary subcommittee hearing to “Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act” and “Assaults on Law Enforcement Officers” that called Captain Murdock Platner to testify about the Omaha bombing. Platner was accompanied by Patrolman James Sledge and armed with graphic crime scene photographs.
Senator Strom Thurmond advised Platner to “speak off the cuff” in the absence of a written statement. Platner said he was a twenty-five year veteran of the Omaha Police Department and oversaw the intelligence squad among other duties. Platner told of “hard- core militants” and an unexploded bomb at City Hall. “This was shortly after Eldridge Cleaver had been in Omaha and made a speech in which he advocated the doing away with police officers.”
According to Platner: “Wilfred Crutch Holliday, who was identified as a Black Panther from San Francisco… left Omaha shortly after this and returned to San Francisco, and has been arrested and convicted of assault on a police officer and is in the penitentiary at this time. An informant told us that Holliday appeared before 30 people and about 10 of these were Black Panthers and the rest were just people who were interested in hanging around socially, or something, and the meeting was not going very good. Nobody acted very interested, and he went outside to his car and took a shotgun out of the car and came back in and stood before these people, yelling and screaming and waving the shotgun, and saying “Let’s get whitey, let’s kill the pigs.” At this time, the term “off-the-pig” was introduced into Omaha. Prior to that, the Omaha police had not heard that.”[iv]
“It is known there were militants from Des Moines, Kansas City, Milwaukee, and San Francisco in Omaha.” Platner described the shooting of Vivian Strong and the rioting following her death. “In June of 1969, an officer received a call of a juvenile—juveniles— burglarizing an apartment in a housing project which is predominantly Negro. The white officer was chasing a suspect whom he had seen come from the window of this apartment. As the suspect was outrunning and about to escape into the dark, he fired one shot at this person, and the bullet struck the suspect in the back of the head, even though the suspect was 139 feet away in the dark. It turned out to be a 14-year-old Negro girl who was killed instantly.”
“Many militants from other cities came into Omaha during this time and attempted to start things. From informants, we learned that all types of assaults and ambushes were planned against officers. Some of the Black Panthers who had been in Omaha from California returned. There were others from other cities. A monitoring system was set up by the Black Panthers and they monitored all police calls, and every time a car was dispatched to an area on a call such as an accident or a fight in the street, or so on, several militants would show up. They would try to get the crowd around the people, around the officers, to do something. They started rumors.”
“This resulted in the police having to fight for their lives just to get out of the crowd or get their cars out. Violators were released, or else were taken away from the officers, and this resulted in quite a few cases having to be just forgotten about, because we were not able to find the parties again; we were not able to arrest on sight. My point is this type of operation against the police has occurred all over the United States, and this is the pattern that is followed, and it seems to me that it has to be a nationwide plan. It has been repeated, I know, in several other cities, from my conversations with other intelligence officers and from what I have read in the newspapers.”
“In August of 1969, the name of Black Panthers was dropped by the Omaha group and a group who called themselves the United Front against Fascism was organized, and Eddie Bolden was fired out of the organization at this time, and they claimed they were sending another man who had been trained in Kansas City or Des Moines and he was supposed to be a lot tougher and meaner and really would get something started. However, almost all of the same people were in this organization as had been in the Black Panthers.”[v]
“On November 2, 1969, a bomb was exploded at the front door of the junior high school during the night. The militants had been trying to influence the operation and discipline of this school. There was a new Negro principal that had just been appointed in this school who really intended to keep the school going; he wanted to have it a school, not have a bunch of people fighting and trouble rousing all of the time. We felt that this bomb was set off as a warning to the school board.”
“In March of 1970, the Black Panthers in San Francisco issued a statement to the press that they were denouncing the Omaha militants and that they would not have any connection with the Black Panthers anymore. This came up over a letter that was written by one of the men in the Black Panthers in Omaha to the San Francisco chapter. I do not recall offhand what it said. It had something to do with not doing what they wanted them to do. This group reorganized, then; almost all the same people, again, and they called themselves the National Committee to Combat Fascism. This is the name they use at this time. They became very active, and they met very frequently, traveled back almost weekly, Des Moines, Kansas City, and on occasion two of these people went to California to speak with members there. They started in, repeatedly, forcing confrontations with the police which then resulted in several misdemeanor arrests, which they made the most of, saying that we were persecuting these people. This was the type of thing where a Black Panther would be in a car driving alongside of a police car and point a gun at the officer and say. “You are going to die,” with a few slang words thrown in with it. We know that they were buying at this time quite a few pistols, rifles, shotguns, and ammunition. We had information, received from maybe not too confidential a source, that they possessed dynamite, that they possessed hand-grenades, and so far as we know they were trying to buy machine- guns.”
“During this time, the party members sat on the front porch of their house—they rented a house right on the main streets in the Negro district—and they would sit there with rifles across their laps, wearing pistols, a belt, on their side, and, so, they would monitor the police calls, and as the police would go by, on two or three occasions, we had shots from this area fired through a bus and shots fired at the police cars. Nobody was injured. We were unable to find out who actually fired these shots. Still they monitored all of the police calls during this time. During this time also there were several bombings in Des Moines and Kansas City, Mo. Shortly, after a bomb was exploded in a parking lot in the Des Moines Police Department.”[vi]
“A bomb was exploded in the North Assembly Area, which is an outlying police station… This occurred as rollcall was being held, around 11:30 that night. There were 20 police officers at this rollcall. This bomb was set off on the back side of the building, and if it had been set on the other side, it probably would have collapsed that whole part there, and no telling how many officers would have been injured. There was no officer actually severely injured, just their hearing, and some of the uniforms were dirty and what-not. This bomb was of such force that it cracked this building from end to end, clear from the back toward the front… which I heard, through informants, was done by the Black Panthers.”[vii]
“About the first of August, a bomb was found in an underpass in Des Moines. This is a bomb that is very simple to make. It was a toolbox and was filled, the tray to the box was filled with nuts and bolts and so on. Two or three sticks of dynamite were placed in the bottom of the toolbox, a cap was placed—a cap or a detonator was put into this dynamite. A small battery was used. The two wires ran to a clothespin, and the clothespin had a small wooden wedge put between them to keep them from making contact.”[viii]
“A police officer went there to pick it up, and when he opened it he pulled up the tray and the wedge was tied to the tray and he pulled the wedge out, and a sliver of wood caught in this thing and it did not explode. During this time, we were told by people from Des Moines—and by informants that we had in Omaha—that they were talking about the Omaha militants, the Des Moines and Kansas City people were, and we know they were traveling back and forth at this time, and a similar ambush of some sort was to be planned against the Omaha police. A bulletin was issued to all police officers describing the techniques used in Des Moines, asking them to be especially careful of any kind of boxes, or anything such as that that they found.”
“On the 17th of August, at about 2 in the morning, the officers received a call of a woman screaming in a vacant house at 2867 Ohio Street in Omaha. From the information we had obtained before, that some kind of a trap would be placed, officers were dispatched to answer this call, but also cover-officers were sent to cover the surrounding houses in the area to be sure that the others were not fired at out of the dark.”
“We have since arrested three black militants. They have been charged in this assault with murder. From testimony at the preliminary hearing, it is known that two of the suspects made this bomb, and it was made exactly as the one in the toolbox that was made in Des Moines. We know that these two men had been traveling back and forth to Des Moines and Kansas City and that one of them had, on occasion, been to San Francisco. This is all within 2 weeks to 2 months prior to this officer being killed.” [ix]
“All of the information we have indicates that these militants were taught in Des Moines or Kansas City or San Francisco about how to make an ambush, how to make the weapon, and then how to put it into practice. It is my opinion that the Omaha militants were pushed into doing something drastic in Omaha because they were trying to regain their standing in the national organization. There definitely are connections between militants in Omaha and many other cities in other States. All of the Omaha police officers have, I know, heard many times militants advocating the killing of police officers, off-the-pigs.”
“I believe that we should have had a law for this at the time when Eldridge Cleaver spoke in Omaha and was advocating the killing of police officers, or when Holliday advocated it.”
Platner alleged that militants in Omaha raised money by threatening Near North Side businesses. “Now, they went in there in Black Panther uniform, and some of them carrying bandoliers, and black jackets and caps, and so on, and I’m sure they terrorized quite a few of these merchants.”[x]
Platner moved on to the topic of informants. “As you probably know, informants are pretty hard to come by in this business. They know if anything happens, or their status is revealed, that they will be done away with in some form or another, either beaten unmercifully or killed. The information we get from these people, they tell us, but we are unable at anytime, have been unable to get somebody who will go to court and testify. They are in fear for their life. We did have, at one time, where we hired informants, but we could not get them to risk their lives, and we did hire people to feed us the information as they could get it. We never got anybody who was in the inner circle of this organization. We could get people to hang around and tell us what was said in the meetings, and so on, but we never could get anybody to tell us what actually happened, and getting your information third and fourth hand, you are handicapped because to get a search warrant, there has to be probable cause, and it has to be from a reliable person. I am not sure we could have found anybody we could have used in this.”
“There were probably 10 cases of this dynamite that was stolen from Des Moines and brought to the Omaha area. We were in contact with a white man who we knew was buying stolen property from these people, and we asked him to ask them about dynamite, and we thought possibly we could buy it. We did eventually buy about 60 sticks of dynamite from them. We were missing one case, which was 10 sticks and which we think was used in this bombing. But dynamite is plentiful in Omaha, and the Omaha area. There are quarries, and you can steal dynamite from almost any of these quarries.”
Strom Thurmond praised Platner for his testimony. “Thank you very much for your testimony, and we appreciate your coming here. Thank you. I think you made a fine contribution.” [xi]
James Sledge offered graphic pictures of Larry Minard’s charred body and the ruined house. Sledge also described the blast and his injuries. “I got lacerations, perforated eardrums, and lacerations all over my body. Here is just one of them. They are healing up now, abrasions.”[xii]
Thurmond accepted Sledge’s photographs prompting the committee counsel to express concern. “These pictures of the body are a little ghoulish to put in a public record.”
Examining the pictures Thurmond asked Sledge about Minard’s injuries. “It looks like his legs were blown off.”
Sledge replied with his theory about the blast. “I think he kicked the suitcase which caused the explosion.”[xiii]
In mid-October, William Sullivan spoke to a convention of United Press International editors and reporters at Williamsburg, Virginia. When asked about communist responsibility for racial unrest Sullivan admitted that no evidence existed of communist instigation of any of the riots that erupted in cities around the nation over the summer and instead blamed extremists.
“The vanguard of black extremism today is the Black Panther Party with its demonstrated proclivity for violence. The party was founded in 1966 ostensibly as a self-defense group against police officers. It has, however, been constantly on the offensive in keeping with its battle cry of “off the pigs”—Panther jargon for “kill the police”. According to Panther thinking, the police are the first target in the program for “liberation” of the black community and the violent destruction of white America.”[xiv]
The speech would prove to be the last of Sullivan’s FBI career. Hoover was furious with Sullivan and said the speech threatened the Bureau’s budget by elimination of the communist threat.[xv]
Sullivan’s speech included a denial of counterintelligence actions against the Black Panthers and the only public FBI mention of the bombing in Omaha. Sullivan didn’t have all of his facts correct, he was wrong on the date and number arrested.
“On August 12, 1970, an Omaha, Nebraska, police officer was literally blasted to death by an explosive device planted in a suitcase in an abandoned residence. The officer had been summoned by an anonymous telephone complaint that a woman was being beaten there. An individual with Panther associations had been charged with this crime.”[xvi]
The day after Sullivan’s speech, Angela Davis was arrested at a mid-Manhattan motel. Davis was unarmed and offered no resistance ending a two-month FBI search for the fugitive. Her experience led Davis to a lifelong kinship with Mondo and Ed Poindexter bringing her repeatedly to Nebraska.
In Omaha, Paul Young sent a memorandum to Hoover on the Minard murder case. Young reminded Hoover that no report from the FBI Laboratory was wanted. “In a preliminary hearing held 9/28/70 in Municipal Court, Omaha, PEAK testified that he had made the telephone call to the Omaha PD telling them that a woman was screaming in a house at 2867 Ohio Street. Police Officer LARRY MINARD was subsequently killed when a bobby trap suitcase exploded as he, with other officers, answered this call.”
“Assistant COP GLENN GATES, Omaha PD, advised that he feels that any use of tapes of this call might be prejudicial to the police murder trial against two accomplices of PEAK and, therefore, has advised that he wishes no use of this tape until after the murder trials of PEAK and the two accomplices has been completed.”
“UACB, no further efforts are being made at this time to secure additional tape recordings of the original telephone call.”[xvii]
The following day, the House Subcommittee to investigate the Black Panther Party opened another day of hearings. Representative William Scherle of Iowa was present. The Minard murder was big news back home and Scherle wanted to investigate the matter himself. The Omaha Police Department was scheduled. However, no FBI representative would be on hand to testify. Murdock Platner, who testified to a Senate subcommittee earlier in the month, returned to Washington to testify again. Platner read a prepared statement this time that both elaborated on and contradicted his earlier testimony.
“I will outline for you the development of the militant actions in Omaha that led up to the murder of a police officer. Eldridge Cleaver came to Omaha and spoke to about 400 people in a city park. Several Black Panthers from California were in Omaha at this time. One, Wilfred “Crutch” Holliday, stayed on in Omaha for some time. He attended Black Panther meetings and on one occasion, with 30 people in attendance, rushed out to his car and brought in a shotgun, and waving it over his head, shouted, “This is the way to handle the pigs; you should get yourself a shotgun and shoot as many as you can.”
“Cleaver’s speech that he made in the park was mainly about the revolution and violence against police officers.”[xviii]
“This was one of the first speeches that they had in Omaha by any known militants or especially any Black Panther. He mostly used a lot of four-letter words, cussing the Establishment and cussing the whole police department.”[xix]
Platner said that Holliday and Eddie Bolden were suspected of placing a bomb that did not explode outside of the Omaha City Hall. Platner noted that Holliday left Omaha shortly afterwards. Platner also mentioned again the shooting of Vivian Strong.
“The next night after the girl was killed rioting and burning started. Several businesses were burned out in the Negro area. This lasted for 3 days. During the entire week militants from other cities came to Omaha. This was established through informants and surveillance of autos with out-of-State plates that were spotted in the area… Cars from California, Wisconsin, Iowa, Indiana, Missouri, Kansas, and Colorado were in the area.”
“The militants obtained radios to monitor police calls. They had several people in cars with monitors, and every time a call was received by a police car in the Negro area a group of militants would show up and start interfering.”[xx]
“This type of action forced officers to let suspects walk away, or they were taken away from the officers in scuffles with crowds.”
“Eddie Bolden was demoted, and a man named Ed Poindexter took over. Most of the officers and members remained the same. This group still had connections with Kansas City, Des Moines, and San Francisco.”
“On June 11, 1970, a bomb was exploded against an outside wall of the North Assembly police station… This occurred at 11:30 p.m. as about 20 officers were in the building for shift change.”
“On 2 July 1970, a similar bomb was exploded in Components Concept Corporation, a Negro-operated business that made small items on Government contracts… The building was destroyed and the equipment was damaged.”[xxi]
Platner described the deadly blast in Omaha. “A 16-year-old Black Panther was arrested for the murder and implicated the deputy chairman, Edward Poindexter, and the deputy minister of information, David Rice, of the NCCF party, who were arrested and have been ordered to stand trial in district court for murder. Dynamite similar to that stolen from the Quick Supply in Des Moines was found in the home of one of the above. It is believed it is part of the supply from which the bombs were made.”
Platner told of the July arrests that never were reported to the public. “On July 28, 1970, three young Negroes, one who is an ex-Panther, were arrested with 41 2½-inch by 16-inch sticks of dynamite in the car. This is also similar to the dynamite taken in burglary in Des Moines of Quick Supply.”[xxii]
“The suspect arrested stated he had found the dynamite hidden in a room of the building rented by the Opportunities Industrial Center and that he took it to sell.”
“Investigating officers found the outline of the boxes in a storage space in the building where the suspect stated it had been.”[xxiii]
“David Rice was employed as a neighborhood worker until recently fired by Greater Omaha Community Action.”
“Eddie Bolden was employed as a math instructor by Opportunities Industrial Center until he resigned in September.”
Representative Scherle then asked questions about Omaha’s anti-poverty agencies and their hiring practices. Platner replied the police had not been requested to run a background check and would have recommended not hiring Mondo or Bolden. Scherle revealed he tried to influence the hiring policy of Omaha’s anti-poverty programs. “I have made numerous visits to Omaha concerning the poverty agencies, the Job Corps, and other areas that fell under the jurisdiction of our committee. I sent a letter to the OEO asking them about the hiring practices concerning these people a year in advance. They just didn’t do a thing about it.”
“I think the thing that concerns me so much is the great association of militancy with our poverty agencies. I am sure that if they were much more responsible in the people they hire I am sure there would be less damage, a better image as far as agencies are concerned. In reference to the application of Eddie Bolden, we have some names here he gave as references when he sought employment, such as Rawleigh House. Are you familiar with him?”
“Yes, sir; he is the treasurer, the original treasurer of the Black Panther Party, and he is the minister of finance in this National Committee to Combat Fascism at this time.” Platner failed to mention that Duane Peak had identified House as the supplier of the dynamite and suitcase for the bomb that killed a policeman.
Scherle continued with his tirade. “This man just made a monkey out of the program and also legitimate and responsible hiring practices.”[xxiv]
“I have a letter here concerning David Rice, who had written for underground newspapers, whose history was well known and he also was employed by GOCA, Greater Omaha Community Action. This had been called to their attention numerous times; nothing had been done. I had sent a letter to the OEO once again concerning this person, and finally Reverend Rudolph McNair, who is the head of the GOCA board, fired him for incompetence and being absent on the job and numerous other reasons.”
“I would like to read this letter in the record written to me by a United States attorney, District of Nebraska.”
“I bless you for your activities in turning the cold light of dawn upon those who would destroy our Country’s development. I am particularly distressed that some of these people are beneficiaries from a government that they would destroy.”
“Such a man is David L. Rice, who can be most easily identified by the enclosed clipping out of the Sun newspapers of Omaha, Nebraska, where this bum operates. As you notice, he sneers at the Constitution and its provisions but saw fit to take the Fifth Amendment when called before a Federal Grand Jury inquiring into the installation of a school designed to train young Blacks to bomb, kill and take over the Country, this using the Government he would destroy.”
“The most tragic thing is, this man is an employee of the Greater Omaha Community Action group, financed by O.E.O. money. It causes me to lose sleep to think that I am paying a portion of the salary of this American rat.”[xxv]
Scherle asked Platner who were “two of the Omaha militants” traveling to Des Moines and Kansas City. Platner answered, “David Rice and Edward Poindexter.”
Platner went on to falsely describe Duane Peak’s testimony at the preliminary hearing and claimed that Mondo supplied the suitcase and dynamite for the bomb instead of Raleigh House. “I can tell you this, that one of the suspects in this, Duane Peak, a 16-year-old boy who was arrested, testified in a preliminary hearing, he testified that David Rice brought a suitcase filled with dynamite to his house or to somebody’s house. I am not for sure just which place; that they removed all the dynamite from the suitcase except three sticks; made the bomb, the triggering device, and so on, and put it together; and then packed the suitcase with newspapers and that he left with this suitcase.”
“Now I am a little bit hesitant to go into the rest of this because there is a trial yet to be held. I don’t know what I should say.”[xxvi]
Scherle renewed his criticism of anti-poverty agency hiring practices, concluding that the Office of Economic Opportunity played a role in the murder of the Omaha policeman. “I guess Des Moines and Omaha are just as guilty as the rest of the country, that because we have not taken the time to screen and properly hire these people… we end up with a group of questionable characters, murderers in this instance, hired by tax dollars.”
“I can’t help but feel in my own mind that the OEO and the anti-poverty agencies played a very important part in the boobytrap murder of Larry Minard… I don’t know what it is going to take to force them to screen their employees more properly… Because it was not done in Omaha we have a widow.”
Platner replied. “Congressman, I for one, I would like to express my appreciation to you for having brought this out and I will say to put the heat on the people responsible and try to get something done about it. I appreciate it.”[xxvii]
Platner was asked about the arrests of three men in July with dynamite.
“We received information that a party that had been approached to buy dynamite. We had him buy it and he bought 19 sticks. This was the 2½ by 16-inch sticks. He came back later and said he could buy more of this dynamite. So we set up for him to buy and then were going to move in before it was delivered. We did move in and arrested three young men in a car. In their possession they had 41 sticks of this same type of dynamite.”
“This dynamite had been removed from the original box that dynamite is usually shipped in and it was in boxes from a grocery store in Omaha. So there were three or four different boxes.”[xxviii]
Scherle praised the police. “I want to say this about the Omaha police. I live right across the river. I think the police in Council Bluffs and Omaha, Nebraska, do a tremendous job, I know what you are faced with; I know what you have to live with. Because of this my sympathies also go out to you.”
“I can assure you that we will do whatever is possible to keep it a safe and sane Midwest. For other parts of the country I think it is too late… My compliments to you, to the chief, and all your associates; we are grateful Captain Platner, very much.”[xxix]
Representative Richard Preyer then chimed in praising Scherle for his “contribution to these hearings” and thanked Platner for his testimony. “Captain Platner, I want to join Mr. Scherle in congratulating you. You have provided some of the most shocking and outrageous things here and yet you have done it in a perfectly calm manner and have not let your indignation carry you away and fly off the handle. Like good police officers you have stuck very close to the evidence and not jumped way beyond it. Most of the evidence you have recited here is circumstantial evidence, but as you know through experience in the courtroom there is nothing wrong with circumstantial evidence; it can be stronger than direct evidence.”
“So this circumstantial evidence here that you have received comes on pretty strong, the only shipment of this dynamite this year, and that sort of thing, it shows you certainly have prepared your case carefully and calmly and efficiently. So I say you are an example of the kind of police officer we need in this country. You are doing a good job.”[xxx]
WANT MORE? WATCH THE NORTH OMAHA HISTORY FACEBOOK PAGE OR COME BACK HERE! PLEASE LEAVE COMMENTS FOR THE AUTHOR BELOW…
- [i] Investigating the FBI, Committee for Public Justice, John T. Elliff, p. 295, 1973
- [ii] U.S. House Committee on Internal Security, Proceedings, p. 4981, October 6, 1970. Inconsistent data from the survey suggests a lack of uniform reporting by the responding local police agencies, thus it is unknown if “2 are awaiting trial” was a reference to Poindexter and Mondo.
- [iii] U.S. House Committee on Internal Security, Proceedings, p. 4725, October 6, 1970
- [iv] U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee, Proceedings, p. 76, October 6, 1970
- [v] U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee, Proceedings, p. 77, October 6, 1970
- [vi] U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee, Proceedings, p. 78, October 6, 1970
- [vii] U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee, Proceedings, p. 79, October 6, 1970
- [viii] U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee, Proceedings, p. 82, October 6, 1970
- [ix] U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee, Proceedings, p. 83, October 6, 1970
- [x] U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee, Proceedings, p. 84, October 6, 1970
- [xi] U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee, Proceedings, p. 85, October 6, 1970
- [xii] U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee, Proceedings, p. 86, October 6, 1970
- [xiii] U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee, Proceedings, p. 90, October 6 1970
- [xiv] U.S. House Committee on Internal Security, Proceedings, p. 5060, October 12, 1970
- [xv] Edgar Hoover: The Man and the Secrets, Curt Gentry, p. 660, 1992
- [xvi] U.S. House Committee on Internal Security, Proceedings, p. 5060, October 12, 1970. Sullivan was off by five days and only mentioned a single arrest.
- [xvii] Mondo’s FBI file, Paul Young to J. Edgar Hoover, p. 50, Oct. 13, 1970. UACB is Until Authorized to the Contrary by Bureau.
- [xviii] U.S. House Committee on Internal Security, Proceedings, p. 4882, Oct. 14, 1970
- [xix] U.S. House Committee on Internal Security, Proceedings, p. 4891, Oct. 14, 1970
- [xx] U.S. House Committee on Internal Security, Proceedings, p. 4882, Oct. 14, 1970
- [xxi] U.S. House Committee on Internal Security, Proceedings, p. 4883, Oct. 14, 1970
- [xxii] U.S. House Committee on Internal Security, Proceedings, p. 4884, Oct. 14, 1970
- [xxiii] U.S. House Committee on Internal Security, Proceedings, p. 4885, Oct. 14, 1970
- [xxiv] U.S. House Committee on Internal Security, Proceedings, p. 4887, Oct. 14, 1970
- [xxv] U.S. House Committee on Internal Security, Proceedings, p. 4888, Oct. 14, 1970
- [xxvi] U.S. House Committee on Internal Security, Proceedings, p. 4889, Oct. 14, 1970
- [xxvii] U.S. House Committee on Internal Security, Proceedings, p. 4890, Oct. 14, 1970
- [xxviii] U.S. House Committee on Internal Security, Proceedings, p. 4895, Oct. 14, 1970
- [xxix] U.S. House Committee on Internal Security, Proceedings, p. 4898, Oct. 14, 1970
- [xxx] U.S. House Committee on Internal Security, Proceedings, p. 4899, Oct. 14, 1970
About the Author
Michael Richardson is a former Omaha resident who attended Westside High School and the University of Nebraska at Omaha. Richardson was a VISTA Volunteer on the Near-Northside and served on the Nebraska Commission on Aging before moving from the state. Richardson attended the Minard murder trial and reported on the case in 1971 for the Omaha Star in his first published article. After a nineteen year career as a disability rights advocate, Richardson worked for Ralph Nader coordinating his ballot access campaigns in the 2004 and 2008 presidential elections. Richardson has written extensively for the San Francisco Bay View, OpEdNews.com and Examiner.com about the trial while spending the last decade researching and writing the book.
- “Framed” Preface by Michael Richardson
- A History of the Near North Side Neighborhood
- A History of the Omaha Black Panthers
- Black History in Omaha, Nebraska